Preventing Chemotherapy-Induced Metastasis in Breast Cancer

Chemotherapy is effective in treating invasive breast cancer. But can it also cause metastasis? Experimental studies in mice have suggested that this may be the case. In a further investigation of this matter, an international team of researchers has shown that two classes of chemotherapy drugs used in neoadjuvant (pre-operative) breast cancer therapy, taxanes and anthracyclines, cause tumors to release extracellular vesicles (EVs) such as exosomes that can enable the seeding and growth of metas...
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Appendix Cancer Model Predicts Efficacy of Chemotherapy

Because appendix cancer is rare, with only 1,000 people diagnosed in the United States every year, it is not as well understood as more common tumor types. That might change with the development of a patient-specific organoid model of the appendix which allows physicians to predict the efficacy of chemotherapy treatments prior to beginning them. Since every patient responds differently to treatment, this model, created by scientists at the Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine (WFIRM) ...
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Antiemetic Guideline Adherence: Challenges and Opportunities for Oncology Nurses With Rebecca Clark-Snow, RN, BSN, OCN

The introduction of effective antiemetic regimens in recent years has led many clinicians to assume that CINV is no longer a major problem. However, nausea and vomiting are frequent complications of cancer treatment, occurring in up to 80% of patients receiving chemotherapy. Although CINV can be prevented in most patients with the use of guideline-recommended antiemetic regimens, Rebecca Clark-Snow, RN, BSN, OCN and colleagues (2018) recently revealed low adherence to antiemetic guidelines among...
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Therapeutic Target Identified in Chemo Brain

Chemotherapy is a life-saving treatment for many patients with cancer. However, it can also leave patients with lasting neurological deficits through a condition commonly known as "chemo brain." "It's wonderful that they're alive, but their quality of life is really suffering," commented Erin Gibson, PhD, a postdoctoral researcher at the Stanford University School of Medicine. "If we can do anything to improve that, there is a huge population that could benefit." In a study published in Cell, Dr...
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Exploring the Effects of Chemo Brain in Breast Cancer Patients With Patricia A. Gibbons, PhD, RN, AOCN

Many patients with cancer who receive systemic therapy experience cancer treatment-related cognitive impairment, commonly referred to as "chemo brain." Chemo brain is characterized by the inability to remember certain things and having trouble finishing tasks or learning new skills. For most patients, these effects are short-term; however, other patients may have long-term mental changes which negatively impact their everyday life. At the Oncology Nursing Society 43rd Annual Congress in Washingt...
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In Relapsed/Refractory AML, Immunotherapy Plus Chemotherapy Yields Results

​A phase 2 clinical trial of a chemotherapy/immunotherapy combination involving azacitidine and nivolumab has produced promising results in patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The most common type of leukemia, AML is a deadly cancer of the blood and bone marrow with a 5-year survival rate of only 27.4%. Some patients experience relapse after initial treatment success; others have refractory disease, where some leukemic cells remain in the bone marrow even after agg...
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Preventing Premature Menopause in Breast Cancer Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy can cure early-stage breast cancer, but it can also result in premature menopause, a highly unwelcome long-term side effect. In the final results of its investigation, the Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG)'s Prevention of Early Menopause Study (POEMS) reports a potential solution: women who receive goserelin (Zoladex®, AstraZeneca) along with standard chemotherapy for hormone-receptor negative breast cancer increase their chances of becoming pregnant without negatively impacting ...
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