Olaparib Approved: HRR-Mutated Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

The FDA has approved olaparib (LynparzaTM, AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP) for adult patients with homologous recombination repair (HRR)–mutated metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) who experience disease progression after treatment with enzalutamide or abiraterone acetate. In addition, the FDA approved two companion diagnostic devices: FoundationOne® CDx (Foundation Medicine, Inc.), for the identification of HRR gene alterations, and BRACAnalysis CDx®(Myriad Genetics, Inc...

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Testicular Cancer: Half the Chemotherapy, Same Efficacy

​One cycle of chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) works just as well as two cycles for the adjuvant treatment of high-risk, stage 1 nonseminomatous or combined germ cell tumors of the testis, report the investigators of a single-arm phase 3 study. Patients with testicular cancer, the most common cancer among American males between the ages of 15 and 35, often present with stage 1 disease. However, many nonseminomas and combined germ cell tumors of the testis have malignan...

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ALK2 Inhibitors: Hope for Incurable Childhood Glioma

​Researchers have found two activin receptor-like kinase 2 (ALK2) inhibitors that show promise in treating preclinical models of ACVR1-mutant diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG). An incurable childhood tumor of the brain stem, DIPG has a median overall survival of nine to 12 months. The chemotherapy treatments most commonly used in histologically similar tumors found in other areas of the brain do not work with DIPG; the only treatment that produces a response is radiotherapy. Within two yea...

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Trastuzumab Duocarmazine in HER2-Positive Cancers

​A phase 1 clinical trial reports that trastuzumab duocarmazine, a new antibody-drug conjugate that targets human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), shows promise in patients with HER2-expressing breast cancer and in HER2-positive advanced and metastatic solid tumors. An antibody-drug conjugate is a type of immunotherapy containing a selective monoclonal antibody, a cytotoxic (cell-killing) agent that causes cell death in the target tumor cell, and a chemical linker that releases the cyt...

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Prostate Cancer: Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Safely Shortens Treatment

​A phase 3 trial reports that stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), which takes significantly less time than standard-of-care intensity-modulated fractionated radiotherapy (IMRT), is equally safe for patients with prostate cancer. The international, open-label PACE-B trial (NCT01584258) randomized 874 men with low- or intermediate-risk prostate adenocarcinoma in a 1:1 ratio to receive either SBRT (36.25 Gy) in five fractions over one to two weeks, or conventionally fractionated or moderately hy...

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